What are the biological and environmental factors that can cause intellectual and developmental disabilities?

What are the leading environmental and biological causes of intellectual disability?

The most common known preventable or environmental cause of intellectual disability is fetal alcohol syndrome, the most common chromosomal cause is Down syndrome, and the most common genetic cause is Fragile X syndrome.

What is biological and environmental causes of developmental disabilities?

Common causes of developmental disabilities include genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, substance exposure, preterm birth, low birth weight and specific infectious diseases. Environmental toxicants have the ability to play a role in each of these causal mechanisms.

What are the environmental factors that can cause intellectual disabilities?

Other environmental neurotoxicants that have been shown to produce developmental neurotoxicity include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, pesticides, ionizing radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, and maternal use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine.

What is the most common biological cause of an intellectual disability?

The most common known preventable or environmental cause of intellectual disability is fetal alcohol syndrome, the most common chromosomal cause is Down syndrome, and the most common genetic cause is Fragile X syndrome.

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What are two preventable causes of intellectual disability?

The leading causes are Autism, Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Among these, the only preventable cause is fetal alcohol syndrome. Medical conditions that lead to intellectual disabilities fall into three groups.

What are intellectual and developmental disabilities?

Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are disorders that are usually present at birth and that negatively affect the trajectory of the individual’s physical, intellectual, and/or emotional development. Many of these conditions affect multiple body parts or systems.

What are the most common intellectual disabilities?

5 Most Common Types of Intellectual Disabilities

  • Autism. Autism is an intellectual disability affecting the nervous system and the structure and function of the brain. …
  • Down’s Syndrome. …
  • Fragile X Syndrome. …
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. …
  • Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)

What is a biological disability?

Biological Disorders: disturbances of the normal state of the body or mind. Disorders of structure or function in an animal or plant. ( Oxford) Disorders may be caused by genetic factors, disease, or “trauma.” (

What is environmental disability?

Environmental disabilities relate to an individual’s restricted tolerance of environmental influences such as climatic features, illumination, noise, pollutants, working hours and speed.

How can an individual’s interaction with the environment cause intellectual disabilities?

Environmental factors such as exposure to toxic substances (e.g., prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal or postnatal lead exposure), nutritional deficiencies (e.g., prenatal iodine deficiency), brain radiation, childhood brain infections, traumatic brain injury, and maternal infections (e.g., rubella, cytomegalovirus) …